DVD-Transfer-Specialists: Frequently Asked Questions
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|TABLE OF CONTENTS:
ORDER RELATED QUESTIONS:
GENERAL TECHNICAL SUPPORT QUESTIONS:
"MOVIE FILM & VIDEO TAPE" TECHNICAL SUPPORT QUESTIONS:
"SLIDE SHOW, FILM SCANNING, PowerPoint" TECHNICAL QUESTIONS:
Here is what we know and have read: the smell of "vinegar" from film is not good. The "Vinegar smell" is the result of chemical reactions that occur between water (moisture), cellulose, and acetic acid. When acetate based film begins to break down, or comes in contact with water, acetic acid is formed, and this is what causes the smell (not vinegar). Depending on how long the process has been going on, the damage to the film may become visibly obvious, in addition to the smell. Even worse, the process accelerates over time. Film may shrink, become brittle, cupped, or warped due to Vinegar Syndrome. Since high temperature and moisture cause the problem, storing your film in a cool (cold storage is being used by some institutions), dry place is one of the best things you can do to preserve your movie film. Film exhibiting Vinegar Syndrome should not be stored in a sealed box or container with "good film" as the acid could induce or at least accelerate Vinegar Syndrome in the other film.
How Dry? The best recommended Relative Humidity is 20%, the highest RH recommended for film storage is 50%. RH at 15% or below can damage the film. Sustained RH higher than 50% is not recommended, and RH over 70% can induce the growth of mold.
How Cool / Cold? It really depends on how long you want to preserve the film. For color film, cold storage is the best method of preserving the film. Room temperature storage of film is obviously better than an attic or damp basement. However, even at room temperature, vinegar syndrome and dye deterioration can and will occur - given enough time.
DVD-Transfer-Specialists does not recommend applying paper labels to DVD media. Please note that our guarantee is void if you apply paper labels to our products. Due to the nature of DVD technology as opposed to CD, a misaligned label could adversely affect reading of DVD media, and we have seen this specific condition. There have also been implications of reduced DVD lifespan due to chemical reactions caused by the label adhesives.
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When you place the DVD-Transfer-Specialists produced DVD disk in the DVD Player, the "Menu" should appear on your television screen. You should then use your DVD Remote Control features to navigate the DVD's various menu and playback options. Each DVD-Transfer-Specialists menu has a background graphic with buttons (or hotspots). These buttons will normally allow you to:
Other DVD Features that you may find useful (please use your DVD player's owners manual or remote control instructions):
All DVD remote controls have 4 arrow keys to allow the viewer to select onscreen buttons, plus a select (or activate) key, numeric keys, a menu key and a return key. DVD Remote controls may include a variety of other functions, such as next, previous, search to part of title (chapter) and select audio track, and specific features related to your brand and model of DVD Player. The most simple type of DVD Video disk has a single movie (or title). Disk playback can be controlled using the usual transport controls found on the DVD Player’s remote control.
A DVD disk can be divided into individual chapters. You should be able to skip to a specific chapter on the DVD by using your DVD Players remote control feature for Chapter Selection.
DVD specifications provide for DVD-Video and DVD-Audio files and folders. These specialized data files are normally stored in special folders.
DVD File types:
IFO (Information) Menus and other
information about the video and audio
VIDEO_TS folder This folder stores the
IFO, VOB and BUP files (required for DVD Player compatibility)
A Picture Montage- is a series of slides, photographs, or negatives set to music. We also call this a slide show. As an example, a wedding "Picture Montage" could begin with the Bride's childhood pictures, then the Groom's. Finally the picture show could close with pictures of the couple. Music can be used for each group of pictures or for the full montage. If the montage is part of a longer video production, it will usually be shown first. The length of a slideshow is determined by the number of pictures, and the time each picture will be shown. The length of music can also be used to determine the amount of time for each picture. We recommend 6 or 7 seconds per picture.
If your slides have been remounted, it may not be obvious which side is to screen. WHEN LOOKING THROUGH THE SLIDE FROM THE "THIS SIDE TO SCREEN" SIDE, YOU SHOULD SEE THE IMAGE IN REVERSE (LIKE LOOKING IN A MIRROR). Some slide mounts have "THIS SIDE TO SCREEN" imprinted in the plastic or written in text (see examples below). You may want to look for printing or text in a picture, (Look for text in the pictures, license plates on vehicles, rotary telephones, shirts with lettering, magazines, wedding rings, men's shirt pockets). All three of the slides shown below are "THIS SIDE TO SCREEN". Here are a few other methods to determine THIS SIDE TO SCREEN or the emulsion side. (A) text will appear backwards in photo. (B) while holding the slide at various angles to light, you may be able to see the texture of the emulsion verses the base side's glossy surface (this technique varies by the type of film - it works well for Kodachrome). (C) The logo of the processor will normally appear on the emulsion / THIS SIDE TO SCREEN side (see picture below for Kodak, but similar for Fuji or Agfa). (D) while holding the slide at various angles to light, a visible "inside curve" bow should be evident in the emulsion / THIS SIDE TO SCREEN side of the film, since slide film bows during processing due to emulsion shrinking as it dries. (E) for negative film, the frame numbers, text, and film type appear backwards along the sprocket edge of the film.
We are able to convert "some"
PowerPoint presentations to DVD.
There are several limitations for PowerPoint to DVD. First, we do not recommend using PowerPoint as the development / editing tool for television video. PowerPoint is designed for PC monitor and printed presentations, with some export capabilities for web. Television (and DVD video specifications) have significantly lower resolution than computer monitors, and therefore televisions do not make good computer monitors. Since DVD video is designed for current television resolution, it is not a good format for storing computer presentations. As an example, we use 25 - 48 point text for Television, while many PowerPoint presentations are 12 and 14 point text.
Further, televisions "crop" the picture, often by 10 to 15%.
The version of PowerPoint can impact the view and performance of the show.
We find the simplest, lowest cost, and often the best method to “convert” PowerPoint developed "slideshow" presentations is to capture each PowerPoint slide and transfer it to a DVD slide show.
Our DVD slideshows can contain still
slides, slides with transitions, movie clips, and audio – however, any
“PowerPoint” animation or slide transitions will not be captured – we will
just be capturing the still PowerPoint slides.
Question: Do you "really" need PowerPoint on DVD?
A few suggestions for text and graphics:
1) Use thick lines to avoid "shimmer".
Preparing movie film for telecine involves moving your
smaller reels of regular 8, super 8, or 16mm movie film onto larger (7 inch)
reels, and adding about 3 feet leader to the head and tail of the roll. A short
section of leader is left between each reel to aid in the editing process. The
reels are spliced in the sequence they will play on your finished DVD. Prepping
for telecine cleans and conditions your film removing surface mildew and dust.
In addition, new reels and containers are provided so your film is ready to be
put back into storage.
You may not have viewed your movie film for many years, and when viewed on DVD and television some of the problems associated with taking and handling movie film will now be viewable on your converted video. This is a list of "effects and causes" published by movie film manufactures (including Kodak), along with a few comments of our own to help explain these effects. You must also include the age and quality of the film, film processing techniques, and the effects of time and other chemical processes that tend to gradually deteriorate the quality of film images, emulsions, and the film.
Effect: Red or Yellow Streaks along edges, sometimes
with clear sections.
Effect: Unsteady picture
Effect: Blurred Picture
Effect: Green Appearance, sometimes with dark spots or
Effect: Very dark pictures without shadow detail (may
be back-lighted subject)
Effect: Flat or Misty Pictures
Effect: Uneven bottom or top of picture
Effect: Light Pictures with wash-out appearance lacking
detail in highlights
Effect: Black lengths of film with little or no image
Effect: Jumpy or Vibrating pictures with vertical
Effect: Excessive Blueness
Effect: Light circular spots or curved streaks
Effect: Pictures Green ,Red, or Yellow
Effect: Excessive redness
Effect: Double Exposure / Half-Exposure
This question is often asked due to the "25 feet" markings on the side of some Kodak "Double 8mm film" boxes. The 3 inch diameter reels of processed Regular 8mm film are 50 feet in length.
8mm film was purchased as "Double 8" reels. Each of the reels was 25 feet of film with 8mm perforations, but 16mm wide (see picture of exposed film). Therefore, before processing, a roll of regular-8mm film is really a roll of 16mm film, with twice as many perforations due to the smaller frame size. The camera first records images along one side of the film, then after 25 feet have been shot, the roll is flipped, and the other side of the film is exposed. After processing the film, the lab splits the film into two 8mm strips, splices them together, and returns a 50 foot feel of 8mm film. Thus a 25-foot "Double 8mm" reel produces 50 feet of Regular 8mm film.
We have successfully transferred customer's movie film originally purchased from Germany, Russia, China, Italy, Japan, South Africa, and other countries. Fuji's "Single 8" film was designed to be compatible with standard Super 8 projectors (even though it did take a special camera to shoot Single 8). Other films are normally compatible with our Regular 8 and 16mm projection systems.
Recommended reading: www.kodak.com
Emulsion deterioration results from fungus, mold, and mildew. Micro organisms are attracted to the organic part of the film emulsion. The higher the humidity, the more likely to have this type of problem (>60% - tropics, or storage in attics and basements are especially a problem). Fungus and mold are normally found on the film emulsion side. Left unattended, the fungus and mold continue to grow, and will eventually destroy the emulsion. Damage tends to be greater at the beginning of film rolls.
Damaged film must be thoroughly cleaned to remove fungi, some sections of the film may even need to be removed and respliced. Depending on the extent of damage, images may be only slightly mottled (we have often seen "snowflake" patterns on film), to excessive visual distraction and at times absence of discernable images. We recognize that these images may be the only memory available, so we limit the editing, but will edit out major damage. Our editing is normally done in software, not by film splicing. Obviously, an ounce of prevention is better than a pound of cure, so it is better to avoid the need to remove any footage by careful maintenance and storage.
Film can be damaged by poor splicing. A poor splice can cause the film to jump the projector sprockets and tear the perforations or break the film. Damaged, or missing film leader should also be replaced.
How does a scanner work?
What is "Twain"?
Can I order on Line?
What types of payment does DVD-Transfer-Specialists accept?
For Credit Card Orders, the billing name on your Credit Card Statement will be: Big Guy Enterprises, Inc. -- which owns and operates DVD-Transfer-Specialists.
When and How will my order be shipped?
What is the Card Code for Credit Card Orders?
are your "Terms and Conditions"?
How do I evaluate your service and quality?
What happens if my DVD player won't
play your media?
What kind of warranty does DVD-Transfer-Specialists have?
Can I get technical help?
Should I send
"original" tapes... film....
slides... or negatives, and will they
sent back to me?
Why do you have two DVD quality standards
for Movie Transfers?
What if my tapes
won't fit on the DVD?
What Are "DVD Menus"?
What Media Types are Accepted?
What is a "Video Artifact"?
What does "CD or CD-R" mean, and does
my DVD player support it?
What does "DVD or DVD-R" mean, and does
my DVD player support it?
There are differences between the DVD-R media we use and the DVD Videos used for commercial movies. A DVD-R disc is a one-time recordable DVD disc. The DVD-R is the only reasonable disc media to use when creating individual or one-off DVD products. A mass produced DVD Video is created using a replication process where a "glass master" is used to produce other masters, or molds, which are used to mass produce DVDs using a press or mold-injection process. The glass mastering and creation of molds is very expensive. Therefore, the mold-injection process is not economical for less than 1000 discs. That's why a recordable DVD, or DVD-R, is used for low production runs.
To see a list of stand alone and computer-based
players that support the DVD, VCD, SVCD and miniDVD formats, please check the
List of DVD Players at www.dvdr.com.
NOTE : This information is only provided as a reference. DVD-Transfer-Specialists does not
take responsibility for information on
http://www.dvdrhelp.com. If a player is not listed, it does not necessarily mean
that it is not compatible.
|We use DVD-R media. This is the industry emblem associated with DVD-R, look for it in your DVD player owner's manual.|
|We can also produce on DVD-RW media as custom work. This is the industry emblem associated with DVD-RW, look for it in your DVD player owner's manual.|
|At present, we DO NOT support DVD+R, or DVD+RW media. Please let us know if there is a specific need for DVD+R, or DVD+RW.|
What audio capabilities does DVD have?
PCM (Pulse Code Modulation) is the same format of uncompressed digital audio as used on Audio CDs. Having from one to eight channels, it can be sampled at 48 or 96 kHz with 16, 20, or 24 bits per sample. Audio CD is limited to 44.1 kHz at 16 bits, with a maximum bit rate of 6.144 Mbps. DVD players support these variations of PCM, but some may subsample 96 kHz down to 48 kHz, and some may not use all 20 or 24 bits. MPEG audio is multi-channel digital audio, using compression with sample rate of 48 kHz at 16 bits. Both MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 formats are supported. The variable bit rate is 32 kbps to 912 kbps, with 384 being the average. MPEG-1 is limited to 384 kbps. MPEG-2 surround channels are in an extension stream matrixed onto the MPEG-1 stereo channels, which makes MPEG-2 audio compatible with MPEG-1. Dolby Digital is multi-channel digital audio, with a sample rate of 48 kHz at up to 24 bits. The bit rate is 64 kbps to 448 kbps, with 384 kbps the normal rate for 5.1 channels and 192 kbps being the normal rate for stereo. NTSC discs have PCM or Dolby Digital on at least one track, with the other tracks in any format. For stereo output, players have a 2-channel Dolby Digital decoder. This decoder mixes 5.1 channels down to Dolby Surround stereo. Both Dolby Digital and MPEG-2 support 2-channel Dolby Surround. Dolby Digital, known also as "AC-3", is a digitally compressed audio format characterized by its ability to offer as many as six separate digital audio channels.
What does "JPEG" mean?
What does "MPEG" mean?
We offer MPEG2 data files for your computer editing. There is one MPEG2 file for each “video DVD” that we encode. We can also provide the raw AVI file (see discussion regarding AVI) or MPEG2 file to data UDF DVD-R discs. The AVI files are raw, the file has not been speed adjusted (for movie film), chapter points are not included, and all of the movie film leader will be visible since this is the RAW captured file. (Adobe Premiere and other video editing tools can do the speed adjustment) The MPEG2 files have been speed adjusted and edited, include our chapter points, and any audio that has been included. Please note that we do not provide technical support for customer hardware / software / systems configuration.
set of standards for the compression of digital video and
audio data. MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 are the two standards we commonly use in our
services. By storing only the changes between video "frames," an
MPEG "encoder" is able to compress video data. The MPEG-2 standard is
widely used for digital satellite, digital
cable, and DVD video. VCD movies use MPEG-1 while DVD and SVCD movies use MPEG-2.
MPEG-2 video has a resolution of 720 or 704 x
480 in 24-bit (16.8 million) colors at 30
frames per second (fps) for NTSC. For video bit rates below 1.5 Mbps, MPEG-1 is
typically used. MPEG-1 video reduces the resolution
of the video by 50% horizontally and vertically. MPEG-1 has a resolution
of 352 x 240 in 24-bit (16.8 million) colors at 30 fps for
What does "NTSC" mean, and are my tapes
in this format?
Background: The National Television Systems Committee
(NTSC) defined the standards for commercial television broadcasting in the
United States, Canada, Japan, and parts of Central and South America.
The standard chosen was 525 lines, at thirty frames per second. In Europe,
Australia, and parts of Central and South America, however, the Phase Alteration
Line (PAL) standard, using 625 lines at 25 frames per second, was chosen. NTSC
and PAL are not compatible. Therefore, DVD has the same NTSC vs. PAL problem as
videotape. The MPEG video that is on DVD discs is stored in one of these digital
formats. There are three primary differences: picture size and aspect ratio,
display frame rate, and surround audio. Video from film is usually stored at 24
frames per second, but when transferred to DVD, it is usually preformatted for
either NTSC or PAL. Movies formatted for PAL display are usually sped up by 4%,
so the audio must be adjusted accordingly before being encoded. Some DVD players
play NTSC, some play PAL, and some will play both. Because of the space
available on DVD discs, many commercial movie producers include all formats.
What is Adobe® Acrobat®
Reader and why do I need it?
What Browser should be used view this site?
What does "SVCD" mean, and does my DVD
player support it?
Super VCD (SVCD) standard is set by the China National Committee of Standards
& Philips, Sony, Matsushita and JVC. It is based on MPEG-2 technology
with variable bit rate (VBR) support. SVCD can deliver up to 2 times sharper
video images than VCD.
SVCD Vs VCD
Videotape has an effective
life of about 15 years under ideal conditions. Many home videos are now
approaching this age and are in danger of irreversible damage. If your
irreplaceable family memories are on tape, they're vanishing. We offer a
reliable and affordable way of saving these moments for your children and for
your family's future generations. The most secure storage for your
memories is the CD / DVD digital format. Images on CD and DVD retain their video
and audio without deterioration over thousands of playbacks. A digital
conversion of your tape now will stop any further loss of video and audio
quality. Damage to the tape by age and the elements is continuous, unstoppable,
and irreversible. Once video streaking, sparkle effects, popping noises, are noticeable,
the deterioration accelerates.
Background / Reference Material:
According to the AMIA (The Association of Moving Image Archivists - a non-profit professional association established to advance the field of moving image archiving... http://www.amianet.org).
The storage of videotape is complicated by the continuing debate about whether to save the artifact as long as possible or only long enough so that it can be migrated to another format to ward off obsolescence.... The chemical breakdown of videotape binders or coatings due to hydrolysis has been well documented. The binders absorb atmospheric moisture and release acids and alcohols that act as catalysts hastening deterioration... Hydrolysis weakens the binder causing particle shedding, dropouts, and eventual loss of the tape through severe degradation. High humidity increases the rate of moisture absorption; it increases tape pack stresses, distortion, tightness, and dropouts form debris and exudations; and, it results in clogging, sticky shed syndrome or "stiction", scoring, and head wear. High temperatures can also cause damage such as increased tape tightness, pressure, distortion, dropouts from wound in debris, layer to layer adhesion, changes in dimensions, all of which promote tracking errors.
ANSI Recommended Standards for the Extended Storage of Videotape
According to The Commission on Preservation and Access in a report entitled "Magnetic Tape Storage and Handling - A Guide for Libraries and Archives" by Dr. John W. C. Van Bogart, National Media Laboratory, June 1995, "Magnetic tape degrades by known chemical processes... The binder systems used in today's audio and videotapes are generally based on polyester polyurethanes. These polymers degrade by a process known as hydrolysis - where the polyester linkage is broken by a reaction with water. One of the by-products of this degradation is organic acids. These organic acids accelerate the rate of hydrolytic decomposition. Furthermore, the acids can attack and degrade the magnetic particles... Humidity is more important in determining the lifetime of the VHS tape than the storage temperature. At 20° C (68° F) and 50% RH, an estimated LE value of ~30 years is indicated. If the storage temperature is raised to 25° C (76° F) at 50% RH, the LE is reduced to ~10 years. However, if the humidity is raised to 80% at 20° C (68° F), the LE is reduced to ~5 years... Tapes can fail for several reasons, however. Tapes can become too sticky to play.... They can fail due to a loss in the magnetic signal... They can fail because the magnetic coating has failed to adhere to the tape backing. They can fail due to irreversible shrinkage of the tape substrate.
Unfortunately, the chemical and physical
deterioration that is affecting all tapes is an ongoing process. By converting
now you're able to capture the video and audio before further deterioration
occurs and the digital format of DVD retains
the video without further loss of quality.
What does "VCD" mean, and does my DVD
player support it?
Background: The "White Book" specification for Video CD, which was announced by JVC, Philips, SONY
and Matsushita in July 1993, is a special implementation of CD-ROM designed
to store MPEG-1 video. The White Book specification defines a disc that can contain up to 74 minutes of VHS-quality, full-screen,
full-motion video. Video CD can normally be played on a personal computer with a
CD-ROM drive, and many DVD players. One second of uncompressed VHS-quality video would require
five megabytes of storage space. Without compression, a 680MB compact disc would
thus only hold about two
minutes of video. MPEG-1 uses various techniques to compress
video data by a factor as high as 200:1. The White Book, version
1.1, has been supplemented over the years by Video CD 2.0 (1995), VCD-ROM (1997),
VCD-Internet (1997) and Super VCD (1998). Video CD 2.0 is for interactive PAL and
NTSC video, including hi-resolution stills and fast forward / rewind
What does "VHS" mean?
What does "VCR" mean?
What is "DV or Mini DV" Tape and recording?
What is "DIGITAL8" Tape and recording?
What is "HI-8" Tape and recording?
What is "8mm or Standard 8" Tape and recording?
is the difference between "VHS-C and VHS" Tape and
What is "Super VHS or S-VHS" Tape and
What is "Betamax" Tape and recording?
What is "UMatic" Tape and recording?
What is "BetaCam SP or DVCAM" Tape and
What is "MII" Tape and recording?
What are some of the differences between
"PAL, NTSC, & SECAM" tapes?
In addition to the differences in the equipment to
play, record, and view these standards, taping these various standards also has
implications. One difference is the time these tapes run. Just because a tape is marked
(T-120) does not mean it will run for 2 hours. The speed in which it was
recorded and the country where the tape was manufactured makes a difference as
to how long it will run. The system used in the United States (NTSC) moves the
tape faster (6.6 feet/minute) than European (PAL) or French (SECAM) (4.69
VHS SP, LP, and EP tape speeds?
What does 8-bit, 16-bit, 24-bit, and 42-bit color mean?
An 8-bit image can have up to 256 colors (8 bits/pixel
x 2 states/bit = 256 possible color combinations).
What is Dynamic Range
in Reference to Scanning?
Theoretical Dynamic Range Often Shown In Scanner Specifications:
24 bit scanners = dynamic range 2.4
A color print normally has a dynamic range less
than 2.0. Film negatives are better, with dynamic ranges approaching 3.0. Slides are
better still, near 3.4. Compared to negatives, slide film has more
contrast, a steeper gamma curve, and the density can be greater. Film negatives,
and especially slides, need a
scanner with greater dynamic range. The true dynamic range of a scanner is a
result of the quality of the electronics and performance of the optics, in
addition to the commonly advertised number of "bits" it takes to store the captured image.
Which is better, scanning slides, negatives, or
What is Film Shrinkage?
"In acetate film, permanent shrinkage is caused by the loss of residual solvents, and even the gradual elimination of strains introduced during manufacture." (The Book of Film Care; Kodak Publication No. H-23, 1st edition, 1983, page 20; 2nd edition, 1992, page 15.)
"Film shrinkage cannot be fully recovered. That fact is troublesome, because perforations are carefully placed along the length of the film and any change in their spacing can become a problem." (The Book of Film Care; Kodak Publication No.H-23, 1st edition, page 72; 2nd edition, page 55.)
though the reference to shrinkage is limited to acetate based film (and is valid
for both diacetate as well as triacetate base), nitrate film is also prone to
shrinkage. The only film base where shrinkage is not considered to be a critical
factor is polyester base film because it is less susceptible to moisture loss
and contains no residual solvents. In nitrate or acetate film, some dimensional
change can be the result of moisture (humidity) in the storage environment and
may be partially correctable. Solvent loss, however, is permanent.
us about custom work, or conversion of other formats.
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